We tried to identify factors which facilitate the process of developing and introducing sustainable technologies, especially paying attention to the uncertainty related to technology, information and learning effects related to cost and other elements, and “Technological Lock-in” related to infrastructure development. Based on the analysis, government policy instruments and methods of social consensus building were evaluated. To explore the complex phenomena, case studies have been conducted on the development and diffusion of the car sharing, hybrid car, and compressed natural gas vehicle. Factors which have been identified as important include the development and maintenance of generic technologies, cost, physical infrastructure, and soft infrastructure such as regulations and linkages to policy structures. Importance of soft infrastructure and social consensus building strategies for dealing with that should not be underestimated.
Keywords: government policy, corporate strategy, institution, generic technology, niche management, car sharing, hybrid car, compressed natural gas vehicle