Development of sustainable rice production is important, which would sustain increasing population in tropical Asia, manage natural resources in harmony with ecosystem, and empower rural society. This report summarizes a part of our research outputs from our literature survey on rice production in tropical Asia and from our research project to improve rice production in Cambodia, at three scales, (1) tropical Asia (global scale), (2) Cambodia (national scale), and (3) Komping Puyoy irrigation rehabilitation area in Northwestern Cambodia (local scale) (See the references of Kamoshita 2009a,b). (a) Economic growth and shifting industrial structure, (b) increasing international rice trade, (c) global environmental issues (i.e. climate change, bio-diversity, fresh water resources), (d) new technologies for crop yield and quality improvement, (e) rural development and poverty alleviation are identified as 5 challenges for rice production to continue to sustain population in tropical Asia with approximately 100 million ha. (a) Increase in marketable rice production through development of irrigation, (b) empowerment of small farmers in rainfed rice growing areas, (c) efficient use of water resources, (d) parallel development with higher industries, (e) reinforcement of agricultural research and technology development and transfer are identified as 5 challenges for rice production in Cambodia, with approximately 2 million ha. In Komping Puyoy irrigation rehabilitation area in Northwest Cambodia, with approximately 4 thousands ha, (a) traditional direct seed cultivation and (b) expansion of irrigation and modernization are clarified through field survey, and future visions of sustainable rice production are proposed through stakeholder analysis and use of sustainability matrix with farmer7s cooperativeness and environmental fragility as 2 key components. Technological innovation such as green revolution, together with the philosophy of sustainability are found to be effective at the global scale of tropical Asia, while government policies are essential at the scale of country, and decision-making manner of the target community is important at the scale of the target local region.
Cambodia, policy, rice cultivation, scale, stakeholder, sustainability, technological innovation