Global Sustainability and ”Trilemma”

Research Project , Research Report 2001

Toru IWAMI School of Economics, the University of Tokyo


Our research deals with the so-called “trilemma” of poverty, population and environment. The poverty promotes population growth, which,in turn, causes both the “poverty trap” and environmental degradations. On the contrary, the income growth improves situations of population and environment, but it takes a certain length of time for this virtuous circle actually to take effect. In the developing economies where agriculture plays a major role, agricultural growth is a key to rising income. In order to avoid the impact from agricultural production to environment, a sustainable innovation in agricultural technology in developing countries is of primary importance.


poverty, population growth, food, sustainability